Simulated configurational temperature of particles and a model of constitutive relations of rapid-intermediate-dense granular flow based on generalized granular temperature
In gas-solid flat-base spout bed with a jet, the flow of particles must go through an intermediate regime where both kinetic/collisional and frictional contributions play a role. In this paper, the statistical framework is proposed to define the generalized granular temperature which sums up the configurational temperature and translational granular temperature. The configurational temperature, translational and rotational granular temperatures of particles are simulated by means of CFD-DEM (discrete element method) in a 3D flat-base spout bed with a jet. The configurational temperatures of particles are calculated from instantaneous overlaps of particles. The translational and rotational granular temperatures of particles are calculated from instantaneous translational and angular velocities of particles. Roughly, the simulated translational and rotational granular temperatures increase, reach maximum, and then decrease with the increase of solids volume fractions. However, the configurational temperature increases with the increase of solids volume fractions. At high solid volume fraction, the predicted configurational temperatures are larger than the translational and rotational granular temperatures, indicating that the rate of energy dissipation do contributes by contact deformation of elastic particles. The generalized granular temperature is proposed to show the relation between the variance of the fluctuation velocity of deformation and the variance of the translational fluctuation velocity of particles. The constitutive relations of particle pressure, viscosity, granular conductivity of fluctuating energy and energy dissipation in rapid-intermediate-dense granular flows are correlated to the generalized granular temperature. The variations of particle pressure, shear viscosity, energy dissipation and granular conductivity are analyzed on the basis of generalized granular temperature in a flat-base spout bed with a jet. The axial velocities of particles predicted by a gas-solid two-fluid model of rapid-intermediate-dense granular flows agree with experimental results in a spout bed.
Keywords: CFD-DEM, Generalized granular temperature, Configurational temperature, Translational and rotational granular temperatures, Spouted bed, Simulation