Rotational resistance and shear-induced anisotropy in granular media
This paper presents a micromechanical study on the behavior of granular materials under confined shear using a three-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). We consider rotational resistance among spherical particles in the DEM code as an approximate way to account for the effect of particle shape. Under undrained shear, it is found rotational resistance may help to increase the shear strength of a granular system and to enhance its resistance to liquefaction. The evolution of internal structure and anisotropy in granular systems with different initial conditions depict a clear bimodal character which distinguishes two contact subnetworks. In the presence of rotational resistance, a good correlation is found between an analytical stress-force-fabric relation and the DEM results, in which the normal force anisotropy plays a dominant role. The unique properties of critical state and liquefaction state in relation to granular anisotropy are also explored and discussed.
Keywords: granular media, anisotropy, discrete element method (DEM), rotational resistance, liquefaction, critical state