Numerically obtained vortices in granular media
With our meshfree numerical code SPARC (Soft PARticle Code), which is based on strong solutions of the equations of equilibrium, we were able to derive vortex patterns (“turbulence”) in deformations hitherto believed to be homogeneous. The formation of such vortices demonstrates the nonuniqueness of the corresponding boundary value problem. We present some evidence that such vortices can be related with ptygmatic folds, which are observed in rock.
Keywords: meshfree method, ptygmatic folds, SPARC, second‐order work, vortex (turbulence),