The self-assembly of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic template, which consists of an array of soft-magnetic elements embedded in non-magnetic substrate, is analyzed by using discrete element method. An external bias magnetic field is used to magnetize the soft-magnetic elements to saturate state. The high-gradient field produced by elements combined with biased uniform magnetic field provides a flexible way to control the behavior of particles. An equivalent source method is adopted to obtain the closed-form magnetic field analysis, which not only improves the calculation efficiency but also enables accurate prediction of the Kelvin force. In the presence of magnetic field, the behavior of the magnetic nanoparticles is dependent on the magnetic and hydrodynamic forces. Therefore, the assembled structures of magnetic nanoparticles are firstly investigated without considering the magnetic dipole interaction force, in which an unordered nanostructure is formed. As a contrast, the self-assembly of particles is also simulated by taking all forces into account. In this case, the magnetic nanoparticles assemble into an ordered 3D structure, which presents a hexagonal close packed structure. A comparison between the results of the mentioned two cases denotes that the magnetic dipole interaction force plays an important role in controlling the self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.
Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles, Self-assembly, Soft-magnetic elements, Discrete element method,