Effect of Contributing Parameters on the Behaviour of a Bolted Rock Joint Subjected to Combined Pull-and-Shear Loading: A DEM Approach
The mechanical performance of fully grouted rock bolts is essential in the stability of underground excavations in jointed rock masses. This research implements a new cohesive contact model in distinct element codes (PFC2D) to investigate the fracturing response of rock-like and grout material, as well as the bolt–grout interface. The results are compared in detail with experimental observations. The proposed modelling approach, used in conjunction with the distinct element method (DEM), successfully predicted the behaviour of grout failure and the bolt–grout interface’s shear response. We then developed a novel numerical, stepwise pull-and-shear test (SPST) scheme to further analyse the mechanical behaviour of bolted rock joints subjected to simultaneous pull–shear loading. The cohesive DEM framework proposed in this paper was used to carry out the SPST scheme numerically. The mechanism involved in enhancing the shear strength of bolted rock joint was determined by monitoring the and its corresponding contact chain force network during the pull-out test. The influence of pretension stress, the rig angle of the bolt profile, and the constant normal stiffness (CNS) condition are assessed systematically. In particular, the pretension stress magnitude at which the synthetic rock bolting system exhibits the highest shear resistance is identified. The findings from this research highlight the sensitivity of bolted rock joints to the simultaneous pull-and-shear loading, boundary conditions, and bolt–grout interface configurations.
Keywords: Bolted rock joint, Combined pull-and-shear load, DEM approach, Cohesive contact model, CNS condition