Discrete element simulation of ice loads on narrow conical structures
This paper investigates a numerical approach to predict the ice loads on a conical structure through simulating the failure process of level ice sheet using the discrete element method (DEM). In the simulation, the level ice sheet is modeled with the bonded spherical particles, which can be de-bonded based on the bonding-breaking criteria.
The ice sample compression and three-point bending tests are used to set up the relationship between the ice strengths, i.e. compression strength and flexural strength, and the bonding strengths in the DEM model; the sensitivity of particle size, normal and shear bonding strength, normal and shear contact stiffness are analyzed. The ice loads on narrow conical structures with different cone angles are simulated using the DEM model. Meanwhile, a comparison between numerical results and the ISO ice force standard is carried out. In addition, the interaction between level ice and multi-legs conical structure is simulated to study the shadowing effect.
Keywords: ice loads, narrow conical structure. numerical model.