A multi-scale multi-physics modeling framework of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process
A longstanding challenge is to optimize additive manufacturing (AM) process in order to reduce AM component failure due to excessive distortion and cracking.
To address this challenge, a multi-scale physics-based modeling framework is presented to understand the interrelationship between AM processing parameters and resulting properties. In particular, a multi-scale approach, spanning from atomic, particle, to component levels, is employed.
The simulations of sintered material show that sintered particles have lower mechanical strengths than the bulk metal because of their porous structures. Higher heating rate leads to a higher mechanical strength due to accelerated sintering rates. The average temperature in the powder bed increases with higher laser power. The predicted distortion due to residual stress in the AM fabricated component is in good agreement with experimental measurements.
In summary, the model framework provides a design tool to optimize the metal powder based additive manufacturing process.